A. Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.]:
1. Date and Place of Birth: Charles Joseph
Bottineau [Sr.]'s date and place of birth are unverified. Some have suggested that he was
born in LaRochelle, France at an unknown date. In other accounts, Charles Joseph Bottineau
[Sr.] is identified as a French Canadian. In other views, he was born in Boston,
Massachusetts, circa 1750, the grandson of Stephen Bottineau [Sr.] and Marie Bowdoin and
the son of James Bottineau and Susannah Faneuil.
2. Date and Place of Death: Charles Joseph Bottineau
[Sr.] died in 1824 in East Grand Forks, Minnesota. Libby has reported that Charles Joseph
Bottineau [Sr.] died 'after five years of sickness brought on by exposure during the
winters. He was still working for the Hudson's Bay Co. when he died and he was buried in
the old cemetery at Grand Forks. This cemetery was located on the north bank of the coulee
that still shows under the track of the Northern Pacific Railroad just south of the
3. Origins: Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.]'s origins are
as controverted as the date and place of his birth:
a. Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] was, in the words of
Healy and Kankel, 'born in France of Huguenot ancestry, came to this country with his
parents to enjoy religious freedom. After living in Boston for a time, he journeyed into
the wilderness, and it was there that he met the Indian girl whom he married' (p.15.).
b. The Compendium of Biography of Central and Northern
Minnesota reported that, Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.], 'father of Pierre, went into the
wilderness of the great Northwest in the early part of the century' (p.144; also, see:
Illustrated American, p.7).
c. Mr. Henry (in Lounsberry, p. 149) described Charles
Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] and his family at the beginning of one of the first Red River cart
train drives in 1802. He noted that, 'Charles [Joseph] Bottineau [Sr.], with two horses,
and a cart loaded with 1 1/2 packs, his own baggage, and two young children, with kettles
and other trash on the cart. Madame Bottineau with a young child on her back, was scolding
and tossing it about.'
d. In a letter dated June 9, 1937, Marie Louise Bottineau
Baldwin (grand-daughter of Pierre Bottineau, daughter of Jean Baptiste Bottineau who
maintained the Bottineau family records until his death in 1911, and a careful and precise
genealogist in her own right) has reported, 'It is my belief that Charles [Joseph]
Bottineau [Sr.] was with the Lewis and Clark expedition [1803-1806]... That information
was given to me by an employee in the Indian Office who promised to furnish me with data
to that effect but died before furnishing it to me.'
4. First Name
a. Minnesota historians Edward D. Neill and J. Fletcher
Williams (p. 513), the Compendium of Biography of Central and Northern Minnesota (p. 144),
and Jorgensen (p. 1) identified the father of Pierre Bottineau as Joseph Bottineau.
b. The Illustrated Album of Biography (p. 772), The Daily
Pioneer Press (p. 1.), and Ouellet identified the father of Pierre Bottineau as Charles,
not Joseph, Bottineau.
c. Healy and Kankel (p. 15) have noted that, Pierre
Bottineau 'was the son of Joseph (some accounts say `Charles') Bottineau.'
d. Available family accounts indicate that the first name
of Pierre Bottineau's father was Charles and that the middle name of Pierre Bottineau's
father was Joseph. Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin (granddaughter of Pierre Bottineau from
his first marriage; daughter of Pierre Bottineau's son, Jean Baptiste Bottineau who had
maintained the family records until they were stolen at his death in 1911; and a careful
and precise family genealogist herself after the death of her father) explicitly reported
on September 29, 1937, that Pierre Bottineau 'was the son of Charles Bottineau 1st,' that
'Charles Bottineau, brother of Pierre, was Charles Bottineau 2nd,' and that, to avoid
confusion, one of the sons of Pierre Bottineau show probably be referred to as 'Charles
Bottineau 3rd.' In addition, Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin specifiically corrected her
earlier letter of June 9, 1937 to A.P. Hechtman when she referred to Pierre Bottineau's
father as Joseph. She noted in her letter of Sept 29, 1937: 'In my letter to Mr. A.P.
Hechtman last June, I had written that Charles Bottineau was the father of Joseph
Bottineau who in fact was the son of Charles Bottineau 1st.' The records of the National
Archives in Washington, D.C. confirm Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin identification of
Pierre Bottineau's father as Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.].
5. Married: Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] married twice:
a. Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] first married
Techomehgood at an unknown date and place.
b. Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] second married Margaret
Ahdik Songab at an unknown date and place.
6. Residence: Dakota Territory settlements at Red River
(now in the southern area of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada), Pembina (now in northeastern
North Dakota, near the Canadian border), Fort Garry (now in the Winnipeg area, Manitoba,
Canada), and Lord Selkirk (now approximately 40 miles northeast of Winnipeg, Manitoba,
a. In 1787, Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] came into the
Northwest Territory Chippewa country with other French fur traders.
b. In 1803 through 1808, Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.]
was a voyageur and hunter with Alexander Henry in the Pembina area.
(1) On October 3, 1803, Henry (Vol. I, p.226) described
'the bustle and noise which attended the transportation of five pieces of goods to the
place where the houses were built in 1801-02.' He specifically recalled 'Charles
Bottineau, with two horses and a cart loaded with kettles and other trash hanging on to
it. Madame Bottineau with a squally infant on her back, scolding and tossing it about.'
(2) On February 22, 1806, Henry (Vol.I, p.274) reported
that Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] and Ambrose Allard had left camp to secure four horses
stolen by the Cree Indians. 'Allard and Bottineau returned with their stolen horses, after
a narrow escape from being killed by the Crees.'
(3) On June 1, 1808, Henry (Vol. I, p. 443) itemized the
people and inventory loaded into his various boats for his final departure from Pembina
which included: 'L.L. Canoe. -- Charles Bottineau; Jervis [Gervais]; Assiniboines--22 kegs
of grease; 1 bag of potatoes; 10 bags of potatoes; Bas de la Riviere; 32 pieces; 1
buffalo' (also, see: Lounsberry, pp. 51-52).
c. Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] was 'engaged' with the
North West Company (also known as the North-western Fur Company) from as early as 1808
through at least 1816.
(1) Alfred C. Farrell (in Collections of the State
Historical Society of North Dakota, p. 294) has noted that the 'Northwest Fur-Trade
company' was 'formed' in '1763.' Wallace (p. 4) has suggested that while the 'orginal
nucleus of the North West Company' is 'almost impossible to determine,' he has argued that
'Certainly, by 1775, the signs of concentration were clear to behold.' Lounsberry (p.18)
has reported that, 'In 1783 the rival Montreal traders consolidated under the name of the
(2) The North West Company was a fur-trading organization
which had engaged in aggressive rivalry with the Hudson Bay Company. This rivalry
culminated in violent warfare over the formation of the Red River Settlement (1812-1815)
and ultimately resulted in the death of twenty two people in the 1816 massacre of Seven
Oaks. On March 26, 1821, a 'co-partnership' or an amalgamation between the North West
Company and Hudson Bay Company occurred (for additional details regarding the North West
Company, see: A Narrative of Occurrences in the Indian Countries; Amos; Davidson;
Documents Relating to the North West Company; Lounsberry, pp. 18, 30, 51-52, 89, 93-98;
Narrative Respecting the Destruction of the Earl of Selkirk's Settlement; Innis; A
Statement Respecting the Earl of Selkirk's Settlement).
(3) In 1868, the Hudson Bay Company surrendered its
original land titles to the new nation of Canada. (4) In 1987, the Hudson Bay Company sold
its 178 'northern stores' that constituted 'the last direct link with the company's
origins as the settler and governor of Canada's remotest regions.' The 1987 sale also
required that the Hudson Bay name no longer be used by 1989. The 1987 sale was viewed, by
some, as 'a priceless heritage [which] is gone forever,' and as a decision, on the part of
the Hudson Bay Company, to 'turn its back on the past [which] seems irrevocable,' with
many believing that 'the sense of abandoning history will be felt well beyond the company'
(d) In 1816, Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] encountered
the critical clash between the North West Company and Hudson Bay Company. Minnesota
historians Edward D. Neill and J. Fletcher Williams (p. 514) reported that: In 1816, one
year before the birth of Pierre [Bottineau], hostillities arose between the Hudson Bay
Company, the old company established in 1670, under a grant of Charles II, of England, to
Pringe Rupert and others, and the North-western Company, whose head-quarters were Canada,
traded by way of the lakes, and had virtually pre-empted this territory before the Selkirk
colony arrived and did not recognize their claim as a part of the Hudson Bay Company's
territory, as this company had never before extended their lines so far south. The Hudson
Bay Company transported goods by way of Hudson Bay. After the establishment of the Red
River settlement in 1812, petty strife began, which in 1816, culminated in open
hostilities. Lord Selkirk had demanded troops from the Governor General for the protection
of his colony without avail, but instead, was injoined against repetition of hostilities.
In spite of this injunction some more blood was shed, but at last, as neither party
received the support of the government, an amalgamation took place, and the united company
controlled the country. In consequence of these hostilities, the little colony of Red
River was greatly weakened by emigration to the territory of the United States and Canada.
Pierre Bottineau's father was commanded by the North-western Company to take part in the
struggle but he absented himself on one of his hunting expeditions. On his return he was
imprisoned, but owning to his influence with the tribe from which he had taken his wife,
he was soon released, as worse troubles were liable to arise' circa 1992.
Children of Charles Joseph5
Bottineau and Techomehgood Assiniboine (see #27) were as follows:
ii. Marie Emily Bottineau was born between 1797 and 1801.
She married Supplice Lapointe dit Desautels, son of Charles Desautels dit Lapointe and
Marie Louise Dupille, in 1819 at St.Boniface, Manitoba, Canada.
iii. Anonyme Bottineau was born circa 1798. He died on 18
October 1805 at near, Grafton, Walsh, North Dakota.
iv. Baptiste Bottineau;(Charles Denney.) (ibid.) was born
circa 1804 at Red River(1850Ci Minn, page 28, Dwelling 98, Family 98.). He married
Philesta - before 1828.
He was a hunter on 9 September 1850 at Pembina, Minnesota
Territory(ibid.). He and Philesta - were enumerated in the census on 9 September 1850 at
Pembina, Minnesota Territory. Also in the family: Isidore Bottineau, Therese Bottineau,
Philesta Bottineau, Baptiste Bottineau, and Mary Ann Bottineau. 98, 98, Baptiste Batnon
(Bottineau), age 46, M, Hunter, b. Red River Br.; Philesta, age 32, F, b. Red River Br.;
Isadore, age 22, M, Hunter, b. Red River Br.; Therese, age 15, F, b. Red River Br.;
Philesta, age 14, F, b. Red River Br.; Baptiste, age 10, M, b. Red River Br.; Maryann, age
5, F, b. Red River Br(ibid.).
v. Marie Otshikkan Outehique Bottineau was born circa
1805 at North West Territories.
vi. Michel Bottineau was born circa 1806 at Red
River(ibid, page 30, Dwelling 121, Family 121.). He married Josette - before 1828.
He was a hunter on 13 September 1850 at Pembina,
Minnesota Territory(ibid.). He and Josette - were enumerated in the census on 13 September
1850 at Pembina, Minnesota Territory. Also in the family: Amable Bottineau, Josette
Bottineau, Marguerite Bottineau, Isabelle Bottineau, Angelic Bottineau, Marguerite
Bottineau, Mary Bottineau, Eleanor Bottineau, and Eleanor Bottineau(ibid.).
13 vii. Marguerite Mindemoyea Bottineau.
27. Techomehgood5 Assiniboine was
born at From, Hair Hills. She and Charles Joseph Bottineau (see #26) were married
according to the custom of the country between 1797 and 1801.
Reference: 'Genealogy, Part Four, Page 5-6 'B.
Techomehgood: Techomehgood was an Indian woman of the Kenistino tribe of the Assiniboine
[Ah-se-ne-bown] People of the Hair Hills. 1. Little is known of Techomehgood, Charles
Joseph Bottineau [Sr.]'s first wife. There is no known record of her date and place of
birth, nor is the date and place of her marriage to Charles Joseph Bottineau [Sr.] known.
Likewise, the date and place of her death are unknown. 2. Techomehgood has been described
by Kvasnicka and others as 'a Chippewa woman from the Hair Hills.' 3. 'A Map of Part of
the Indian Territories in North America' of June 19, 1816, indicates that the 'Hair Hill
State' was a circular area, approximately 40 miles in diameter, with its midpoint slightly
west of the intersection of the 49th parallel and the 98th meridian, and roughly fifty
miles southwest of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In terms of contemporary geographic
boundaries, the Hair Hill State would now be divided, almost in half, by the international
boundary dividing the United States and Canada, with the northern half of the Hair Hill
State in lower central region of Manitoba, Canada, and the southern half of the Hair Hill
State in the northeast region of North Dakota. Noting that the location and description of
the Hair Hills has varied, Coues (in Henry, Vol.I, p.82) observed that, 'the Hair hills or
Pembina mts., more properly so called, lie nearly N. and S., mainly in the Dakotan
counties of Nelson, Grand Forks, Walsh, Cavlier, and Pembina, and extend thence into the
district of Lisgar in Manitoba.' 4. The origins and characteristics attributed to the
Assiniboine Indian tribes have varied tremendously. a. Stevens (1859, p.62) has argued
that, 'The word Assiniboine has its origin as follows: They are an offspring of the Sioux.
In the war of 1812 a number of these Sioux fought against a number of Chippewas, and took
a good many of the latter prisoners. They tied these prisoners to a stake upon a larger
rock and burned them to death. Since that time they have been called `Assini Boines,'
which, in Chippewa language, means `birnt rock.'' b. The Chippewa Red Lake Tribe (in Cyr,
1933, p.4) has directly denied the kind of analysis provided by Stevens for the word
`Assiniboine.' They note that the word used by the Cippewas for this tribe was
`Ah-se-ne-bown.' In their view, the word `Ah-se-ne-bown' was 'corrupted by the white
people into Assiniboine.' c. Henry's (Vol.II, pp. 516-523) 'ethnographic' description of
the Assiniboine tribe, written between September 18, 1808 and September 12, 1809, while he
was in Fort Vermilion, Alberta, is provided in Appendix I, 'Historical Documents,' of this
document'(James W. Chesebro, PhD.).